A refugee is a person fleeing from something or other
The United Nations (UN) Convention defines it as:
Owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of their nationality, and is unable to or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail him/herself of the protection of that country
A person seeking to be identified as a refugee is known as an asylum seeker.
Refugees from Iraq and Afghanistan
Most of those refugees arriving in Europe from Syria, Afghanistan and Iraq have travelled through Greece and the Balkans. While the borders were open, the main pattern of migration was through Greece to Macedonia, north-west through Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia, towards Austria and Germany
Every day we see news reports about the number of boats loaded with people, including women and children, making the perilous journey across the Channel to reach the UK. At least 828 refugees crossed the Channel by small boat in one day over the last weekend of August 2021 – a new record for the current crisis.
Despite Home Office pledges to make the journey "impractical," 30 boats managed to reach the United Kingdom on Saturday 21 August, the department said. The number of people who arrived broke the previous record set less than two weeks before when 592 crossed in a day.
Over 12,400 people have now crossed the Channel into the United Kingdom since the beginning of 2021, according to data collected by the Press Association news service.
A number of people have died while crossing, with governments on both sides of the Channel promising to take action.